CRATEX is by far the very best. I say this because CRATEX offers a vast variety of abrasive grits, types, and shapes to match my projects. The quality of the CRATEX products affords me the opportunity to provide my customers with the best quality product. Without the CRATEX products our work would be so much more labor intensive.
CRATEX Gunsmithing Tools
Equipment & High-Quality Abrasives for Gunsmithing
Gunsmithing is an impressive calling which requires passion, calmness, precision and accuracy. It is also a culmination of different sets of skills: knowledge in different types of firearms and their history, their design, function & repair, operating machines like a lathe or a mill, re-barreling and customizing rifles, refinishing firearms, mastering advanced skills and techniques, like welding, and lastly, knowledge in becoming successful in the gunsmith business.
But, no matter whether you are a five-star master gunsmith who works on guns for a living, or whether you take it as a hobby, you’re going to need some good-quality tools to get the job done.
This article is going to show you what it takes to be a gunsmith of any level and how CRATEX products fit in your gunsmithing work.
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CRATEX Products for Gunsmithing
Interview With a Gunsmith - Bill Poole from POOLE’S GUNSMITHING
Top 5 Essential Gunsmithing Tools
How to Become a Gunsmith?
How to Remove Rust From Gun
CRATEX Products for Gunsmithing
CRATEX Abrasives and other CRATEX products are perfect tools for gunsmithing and their place in workshops of many gunsmiths has been well-earned over the years.
CRATEX rubber bonded abrasives are made of high-quality silicon carbide and are perfect for operations like: removing rust from old firearms, removing trigger serrations, removing stretches, rounding edges, cleaning up worn or damaged pistol and rifle markings and engravings, polishing flash pan, bolts and feed ramps, smoothing surface and getting almost mirror finish, jeweling a rifle bolt or pistol barrel, etc.
CRATEX abrasives come in four standard grit textures which differ in color: Course (green), Medium (dark brown), Fine (reddish brown) and Extra Fine (grey green). However, there is also the possibility to modify standard shapes and grits and get a modified abrasive tool that fits your needs much better.
Below you’ll find some of the CRATEX products widely used as gunsmith tools and equipment.
1. CRATEX Small Wheels
CRATEX small abrasive wheels are used for fine metal polishing, smoothing, deburring and many other uses in customizing and modifying guns. Small grinding wheels can be used for after hammer spur removal to create a nice, even surface on the back of the hammer. After that, sanding abrasives can be used to remove previous grinding marks and for contouring, and at the end, progressively finer grit wheels for polishing. Of course, small wheels can be used for polishing other parts of the firearm as well, like the trigger.
2. MX Abrasives
CRATEX MX abrasives are cotton-fiber aluminum-oxide laminate-bond products, which are much more aggressive than CRATEX rubber-bond abrasives. Their most prominent characteristics are the ability to hold shape and cutting action, so they are used for more aggressive prep work. MX abrasives are perfect for removing tooling marks left on parts from milling.
Recommendation: Use MX cone-shaped abrasives to remove marks and then use a fine rubber-cone for a smooth finish.
3. CRATEX Points & Cones
CRATEX abrasive points & cones are shaped and ready to use for polishing even hard-to-reach delicate firearm parts and angles. Easily carved, they are perfect to get into corners and rails. They can be used on a grinding tools for creating an even surface after metal removal jobs, like removing a revolver hammer spur, for working on the receiver to make the new bolt handle fit properly, for removing trigger serrations, for feed ramp work, for flare/fair ejection port work, throating the barrel, etc.
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Recommended: CRATEX Kit No. 777 – Small wheels, points and mandrels
This kit contains a total of 80 different tapered edge and straight wheels, and bullet and cylinder points plus two wheels and 2 point mandrels, separated in four compartments by each grit texture for easy selection. This way, you can have all the tools you need for polishing, smoothing, grinding and deburring work on your firearm in one place.
Recommended: CRATEX Kit No. 227 – Cones and mandrels
This kit contains 18 CRATEX Cones (tapered, cylinder, pointed and bullet cones) in two grits (coarse and fine) and two No. 1341 cone mandrels. Excellent kit for grinding and polishing work on pistol or rifle when you need to reach some hard-to-reach surfaces or spaces.
4. CRATEX Abrasive Rods
CRATEX rods have various purposes in gunsmith work. One of the popular usages is jeweling a rifle bolt. The rifle bolt is mounted on machines like Jeweling Indexer or Wheeler Engineering Bolt Jeweling Fixture. The jeweling swirls are made by abrasive rods, which are placed in Drill Press Quill tubes. The bolt is then placed below the press, and rods are gently lowered down to touch the rifle bolt for a couple of seconds to create a jewel. The process is repeated for as many times needed to cover the entire surface of the rifle bolt.
Centerless CRATEX rods can also be used with Menck Damascening Tool that supports the whole length of the rod. Thanks to the extended design, this tool will allow jeweling around parts like firearm bolt handles or locking lugs. The abrasive rod has a close size control, a feature that will make the "swirls" always equal.
5. CRATEX Abrasive Blocks/Sticks
Abrasive blocks are an item that every gunsmith should own. Coarse grit silicon carbide blocks and sticks are great for removing material or sharpening tools, fast work when the fineness of the cutting edge is not so important. A beginner gunsmith should probably keep a distance from coarse grits and stick to medium or fine stones, which remove material smoothly and softly without digging into the surface. The extra fine grit can be used for putting a finish on firearm parts that are made from metal. Depending on the work, a gun smith can start with the coarse grit and work his way through the grits to the extra fine finish.
CRATEX also offers dressing blocks, which are important if you own a Grinder. Dressing blocks will keep the grinding wheel surface clean and square.
6. CRATEX Large Wheels
For every serious gunsmith, Grinder is one of the top must-have power tools, and CRATEX 6” large grinding wheels can make a perfect package in cases when you are doing cleaning, surfacing, polishing or grinding work. You’ll use this power tool and wheels every time you need to re-shape parts (like recoil pads), sharpen or modify your tools, shorten springs and screws, take off the rust.
Belt Sander is another power tool which is a money well spent. Besides the belt, the machine has a sanding wheel on the side, which is excellent for operations like sanding the rifle stock to fit recoil pads or for shaping them. Of course, a wide sander belt can also be used for stock sanding.
7. CRATEX Moto-Tool and Rotary Handpiece Attachments
Moto-tools are quite handy in a gunsmith workshop for doing a wide variety of small chores, and CRATEX tools are a perfect fit for Foredom or Dremel rotary machines. These tools allow you to mount a variety of different size of attachments suitable for engraving and polishing, mounting grinding stones, cut-off bits, etc.
As a gunsmith, you will certainly also need a small hand-held rotary tool. CRATEX offers a lightweight, stainless steel, high-quality and precision air tool called CRATEX Rotary Handpiece, which in combination with CRATEX abrasive and cut-off wheels, points and cones are used for precision grinding, cutting, finishing and polishing operations on firearms. The small power tool can be used for shaping stocks, modifying parts, cutting slots in screws, polishing internal parts, cutting off metal pieces and cutting holes in your firearms, etc.
CARTEX tools can also be mounted on rotary pieces of different manufacturers, like Dremel, Craftsman, Foredom, etc. in case that’s what you currently have in your workshop. But, if not, CRATEX Rotary Handpiece is a tool to invest in.
8. SPEDECUT Cut-Off Wheels
Spedecut resin-bonded abrasives are double-reinforced cut-off wheels with high tensile strength fiberglass layers on both sides that can be mounted on a hand grinder and used for grinding or cutting off firearm metal parts. For example, Spedecut can be used for making cuts in the receiver while working on de-milling of the trigger guard, cutting off hammer spur, cutting off existing bolt handle to later install a new one, or cut off inadequate factory bolt knobs to replace them with the ones that can provide faster operation.
Interview With a Gunsmith
Welcome, Bill! And thanks for accepting to do this interview with us. Could you please tell us a bit about yourself, maybe something we can’t find on your website?
- My hobbies have always included firearms, however my second love is motorcycles. I have experienced road driving, hill climbing, flat track and motocross racing. Fishing and other outdoor activities have been enjoyed during my lifetime. Last but considered the most important is my sole-mate/wife, Debbie. We met in high school and have been together through all of life sharing business and pleasure. I have been trained as a machinist, certified welder in metal and plastics and experienced in most home remodeling tasks. I have held a patent in plastic welding equipment and I’m considered an expert in containment products for concrete joints. I was CEO of J P Specialties, Inc. for a 35-year period.
How long have you been working as a gunsmith? Can you describe your beginnings?
- I have been gunsmithing for over 35 years. When I moved from the Illinois to San Clemente, California in 1982 I discovered the San Clemente Trap & Skeet Club. After joining the club I participated in many trap and skeet shoots. Many of the club shooters brought me their shotguns for repair or modification. We opened our first retail store in San Clemente and began working with the local police departments and military from Camp Pendelton doing repairs. Several years later we expanded our business and moved to Laguna Niguel. In 1989 we moved the business to Lake Elsinore, California where we purchased a 5,000 sf building. In 2012 I was retired and we moved to Prescott, Arizona. 3 years later we moved to Wickenburg, Arizona where I came out of retirement and opened our new 2,200 sf retail gun store with complete gunsmithing service known as “Poole’s Gunsmithing/ Arizona Custom Firearms”.
Can you describe your (or your team's) day on the job as a gunsmith? Or your typical work week if more suitable?
- We have one full time, professional gunsmith who has over 14 years in special operations military experience whom we employ, my wife and myself. My day starts at 8 am and ends at 4pm. A day on the job is filled with multiple challenges of repairing/restoring all types of firearms. We have repaired firearms from the late 1800’s to present day. Since opening our new store in April 2017 we have repaired over 400 firearms. In the course of a day we are selling new, used or consignment guns. We handle transfers, background checks and discuss technical questions. All gun work is test fired in our bullet trap. We are authorized by the Game and Fish Department of Arizona to sell hunting and fishing licenses.
What gunsmith service do you provide the most at Poole’s Gunsmithing: repair, engraving, customization or some other? Do you work mostly with guns or rifles?
- At Poole’s Gunsmithing we repair all types of firearms and restore them to a safe shooting condition. In addition we discuss with our customers what type of custom firearm we can build to order. We offer long range rifles, target pistols or revolvers and concealed carry. We manufacture our own “Match” AR15 platform rifles/pistols. Our name “Poole’s” and our logo appear on the lower receiver. Poole’s works in conjunction with the best bluing service and engraving service, offering a full service gunsmithing shop.
What's the last project that you did that was especially challenging?
- The most challenging work is usually the older double barrel shotguns. These would be from the early 1900’s to 1940. There were many brand names that were private labeled for department stores and hardware stores. Obtaining schematics and parts is a challenge. These guns require custom made parts and hand fitting for each and every particular gun.
Can you name the most important factors to become a successful gunsmith?
- Apprenticing, formal training, patience, testing your work before returning the gun to the customer. No short cuts. Upfront accurate quotations for your repairs.
What is your advice for those who just started with gunsmith school and career?
- Take the career seriously. Plan to work as many hours as necessary to provide quality work. Always remember the firearm you are working on can take a life or save a life; make sure it is reliable.
What are the essential gunsmithing tools in your shop you can’t work without?
Machinery would be a precision lathe, baldor buffer, disc & belt metal grinder, fordem motor/shaft, barrel vise, milling machine, abrasive blaster, heat treating furnace, air compressor and hundreds of specialty hand tools.
What type of abrasives do you use in your shop: rubber wheels, points, cones, etc.? Please describe the purpose of the use: polishing, grinding, finishing, etc. Why do you need abrasives and in what phases do you use them?
- Belts and discs for the grinder to remove metal fast. Hard 8” wheels for polishing flat surfaces and deburring on receivers and parts. Sewn cloth 8” for use on the buffer for polishing parts. Loose cloth for high luster polish on stainless steel parts. Baldor buffers are handy for polishing large parts.
Depending on the abrasive shape, what size (diameter) and grit type are mostly used by gunsmiths?
- When using a foredom shaft drive tool we use diameters of ¼” to 5/8”. The shape most common is a cone shape or drum shape. Rubber shapes in medium or fine to polish. MX for more aggressive prep work.
You use MX abrasives (aluminum oxide abrasives). What is the main difference (advantage) between those and rubber abrasives? Why other gunsmiths should try MX mounted wheels and cones?
- MX is perfect for removing tooling marks left on parts from milling. Feed ramps on pistols that have machine gouges on the ramps cause jamming. Use MX cone shape to remove marks and then polish with the fine rubber cone or hard felt with the right compound.
Did you try some other Cratex products, like Spedecut cut-off wheels or Brightboy abrasives?
- We use the Cratex small diameter round pencil shaft rods for jeweling metal parts.
How did you learn about CRATEX products? Official website, forum/blog, recommended by other gunsmiths?
- Started using Cratex abrasives in the mid 80’s after visiting “Tussey Custom” in Tustin, Ca. Terry Tussey is one of the best pistol smiths in the country and turned me on to Cratex. He now teaches gun smithing in Nevada.
When did you start using CRATEX abrasives?
Why did you choose our products instead of some other manufacturer?
- Cratex is by far the very best. I say this because Cratex offers a vast variety of abrasive grits, types, and shapes to match my projects. The quality of the Cratex products affords me the opportunity to provide my customers with the best quality product. Without the Cratex products our work would be so much more labor intensive.
What do you like the most? A) Quality & Material? B) Price? C) Customer service? Other (describe main benefits using CRATEX abrasives)
- A, B & C I like them all. The main benefit to Cratex is that it works!!!
Is there anything we could do to make you a more satisfied customer? (product improvement/online store/website/other)
- Yes, mount the rubber cones & drum shapes to a fixed shaft. This would prevent the rubber abrasive from dislodging from the existing shaft design.
Would you recommend CRATEX products to others, and if yes, how would the recommendation sound?
- You have tried other products, now buy Cratex for the results you have been looking for.
Top 5 essential gunsmith tools
If you want to be a great DIY gunsmith, you at least a several pivotal tools. Gunsmithing tools not only make your task easier, but they also make it successful.
When it comes to arms, using the proper tool for the task often means the difference between a piece of art and a part of junk.
Therefore, pursue the following list of 16 gunsmithing tools that serious gunsmith should have on hand.
Tool #1: Gunsmith Screwdrivers
Classic screwdrivers aren't tailored for guns. They can destroy screw edges and damage the finish as you apply pressure, while gunsmithing screwdrivers have beveled and tapered heads, which fit adequately in most screw slots found on different kinds of guns.
The two most used types are magnetic-tipped and fixed-blade screwdrivers.
- Magnetic tipped screwdrivers have hollow magnetic ends, which hold the screw versus the bit, and are handy when you’re working with the smallest screws;
- Fixed-blade screwdrivers deliver more strength and maximum control.
Note -We suggest Brownells, as they have a gamut of various single screwdrivers and sets, both with magnetic tips fixed blades.
Tool #2: Gunsmith Pin Punch Set
Pin punches quickly remove roll pins from guns that are encountered during the assembling or repair. You can buy one pin punch, but for best results, take a whole set, in order to have a right size punch at hand.
Tool #3: Gunsmith Hammers
They’re used for hitting pins and backing them in their place. Gunsmith hammers do it without leaving a scratch or chipping the surface of the gun.
Brass hammers are most commonly used since brass won't damage the steel, and marks left by it can be eliminated easily. Brass hammers are utilized mostly for driving pins, tapping frozen screws, or freeing up choke tubes.
Tool #4: Gunsmith Vise
There are many types of gunsmith vises, like the ones that are attached to the workbench or the vises secured to a block of wood. They can be positioned both horizontally and vertically, and that can be adapted to any task you’re conducting. It’s ideal when you work on small parts, for example - holding a trigger sear for stoning.
Tool #5: Bench Block
Bench block stabilizes the gun's parts and prevents them from rolling throughout pin pushing or driving, which makes any detailed task much easier to do.
It's made in different sizes - some are formed according to the specific gun models, and the holes in them allow pins to drop free. Since bench blocks can’t damage the arm’s surface, they’re crafted of materials including wood, nylon, and polyurethane.
If you do a search on Google about gunsmithing salary, you’ll get a pretty straight answer $32,267 on average per year. Since this figure came out from five years old research we decided to dive deeper into these numbers and check firsthand how much money you can make as a gunsmith.
Is Gunsmithing a Good Career?
Like any other professions gunsmiths can earn a wide range of salaries depending on many circumstances, but most important is the experience and how long you are in the business. A simple fact is that gunsmithing is definitely not the highest paid job in the US but you can earn a decent living from it.
According to PayScale research that is updated on September 27th, a gunsmith earns on average a wage of $15.51 per hour. The range of total pay goes from $24,520 to even $62,948. Six-figure gunsmith salaries are rarely reported and can be achieved by true experts and master gunsmiths.
Factors That Affect Gunsmith Salary
How much money you can make depends on a lot of factors. They can be general for sure and influence your wage in the same way as other on a national level, but we’ll stress most important related to gunsmithing industry. Of course, we’ll assume this is your full-time job and not a hobby.
- Factor #1 – Experience. This isn’t a #1 factor without a reason. As time goes by you will gain experience and be able to work on a delicate project like gun restoration, design, customization, etc. Working on complex projects (and doing it them right) will put you in a position for a higher hourly wage.
- Factor #2 – Reputation. There is no need to explain why reputation is important for every job. As you gain experience and skills your portfolio will become richer. A successfully completed task will build your reputation but be patient and don’t expect miracles to happen overnight. Building reputation needs time.
- Factor #3 – Specialization. One of the factors that have the biggest impact on gunsmithing salaries. When you acquire basic knowledge as general gunsmith it is the right time to think about specialization. Engraver, custom designer or finisher are just some of the fields where you can focus and become an expert. Engraving whole or just part of the gun is more paid than simple gun cleaning.
- Factor #4 - Do you run your own business? Running your own business usually means a higher salary (few gunsmiths reported $100,000 income per year), but this also brings some other risks as well. You need to worry about benefits, tools and breakages. Your paycheck is not guaranteed when you are your own boss. On the other hand, you have flexible working hours and freedom to work on projects you find tempting. Starting your own business just after graduating is maybe a not such a good idea. Consider the fact that tools can cost you more than $10K.
- Factor #5 – School (certifications and training). Owning associate of occupational studies degree in gunsmithing or certificate and advanced training program can be a real boost to gunsmith salary. Additional degrees can put you in a position to ask for more when negotiating with a potential employer. Check Chapter 4 to see the best gunsmithing schools in the US or download our eBook with ALL gunsmithing schools with their contact information.
- Factor #6 – State where you are doing business? Location of your shop or workshop (combination of retail gun store and gun repair shop) you are working for, along with local demand in most cases means different salaries too. Gunsmith salary in Texas is much higher compared to one in Mississippi. One of the highest paid states for gunsmiths is New York with $85,000 salary per year.
A lot of good gunsmiths do blogging as gun experts. They write specialized articles for online gun magazines, blogs or even forums. Some of them are great forum administrators. Since these blogs and forums have large audience many of them earn extra bucks renting web space for gun and armor shops.
Advice for Beginners
Like every other profession, gunsmithing has some specifics and uniqueness. Master gunsmiths have several pieces of advice especially for those who just graduated and are looking for their first job as gunsmiths:
- Don’t worry about the money. As you are just starting out making $12 per hour plus benefits is very good.
- At the beginning of a carrier you need to learn as much as possible. Don’t think you know everything just because you have a gunsmith degree or certificate!
- At the beginning, your will mostly work on gun cleaning. Don’t let that discourage you.
- Invest in the best tools you can afford. Never buy cheap ones!
- Invest in knowledge, accept new things (like using software for gun designing) and be willing to work long hours.
- Don’t accept work you are not capable to do, breakages will cost you a lot!
- Pay attention to every detail. That is the only way to build a reputation.
- Respect and adopt knowledge and experience of older gunsmiths. Learn their tips and tricks. It is not just about book knowledge.
- Don’t overload yourself!
- If you are going to sell guns as well, you need to be a good businessman too.
- Try to specialize in finishing, engraving and other gun customizations.
- Start creating your own knowledge base and library from the day one.
Don’t let figures mislead you. Read this interesting interview with the gunsmith, Ben Worthen. He describes how he got started, his education, what his working week looks like and finally how much money he can make as a gunsmith.
Jobs for Gunsmiths
If you are looking for available gunsmithing jobs in the US we recommend to do a search on Indeed.com and check if there is something interesting for you. According to this website, there is a big demand for gunsmiths in different positions and specializations across the US. Browsing opened positions you can have better insights on average gunsmith salary since you can filter results by Salary Estimate and Experience Level.
How to Become a Gunsmith
You can say that a gunsmith is a person who repairs, customizes and/or builds firearms, but it won’t truly illustrate the skill set and width of knowledge a gunsmith must own to be able to do what he or she does.
A gunsmith can perform quite simple tasks, for example, inspecting, cleaning, disassembling and reassembling a firearm, but is also capable of performing complex tasks, including metal refinishing, wood and metal engraving, or design. Therefore, a master gunsmith must possess a wide range of skills which make him part fabricator, part mechanic, part metalworker and wilder, woodworker and part an artist.
First, a gunsmith needs to know his/her guns – must be familiar with all kinds of types and models of firearms to be able to customize their parts, analyze and improve their performance.
A gunsmith must possess knowledge in the use of numerous hand and power tools, measuring devices and machinist tools. Not only is machine shop knowledge required, but also knowledge in: mathematics, materials engineering, ballistics, chemistry, and, of course, running business.
And above all, a gunsmith must be a good artist, both when it comes to coming up with the design and transferring it on a piece of paper and engraving or carving the wooden or metal part of the firearm.
Since the road to becoming a professional, master gunsmith is a long and exhausting one, and since not all gunsmiths can possess all previously mentioned skills, many of them focus on becoming specialist in preferred areas: custom building/designing, finishing work, stockmaking, checkering, engraving, some specialize in work on revolvers and pistols only (pistol smiths), and some become manufacturers of certain types of gun parts and focus on distribution and sale to other gunsmiths.
But, how do you become a gunsmith in the first place? This chapter contains information on precisely what it takes to become a gunsmith.
Technical Skills of the Trade
Gunsmiths can create true pieces of art, but it’s not just art what gunsmithing is. Guns that are designed and build must also be safe and must function properly, as the slightest technical slipup could result in serious injury or worse.
A gunsmith must become primarily skilled in woodworking, metalworking and machinery. He or she must also get familiar with numerous other shop materials, as this knowledge is essential for creating good-quality guns.
This involves using various wood shop and metal shop equipment, such as drill presses, drills, hand rotary and air tools, cutting tools, grinding tools deburring and metal polishing tools, precision measuring instruments, files, chisels and so on.
Math skills are also important, as gunsmithing involves a lot of measuring, precise cutting and executing calculations for technical specifications, but mechanical expertise is essential. Namely, a gunsmith must understand how a gun works, must understand its components and how they move and work together. Understanding gun mechanics is crucial for assembling all parts properly, but also for identifying a problem when a gun isn't working as it was supposed to.
Being an engineer is not a must, but it is certainly recommended. You would learn more advanced calculations, ballistics and so on, which can be very helpful for the profession.
Interest in History and Production of Guns
As a gunsmith and a gun enthusiast you must be interested in the history of firearms. From the dawn of the firearms in the 1200s China to the long period of development of modern weapons to the introduction of automatic handguns at the end of 19th century, the history of firearms is extensive and impressive.
Not all gunsmiths are interested and familiar with all eras – some have more extensive knowledge of historical firearms and some lean more towards the contemporary period. Either way, gunsmiths are usually collectors or hobbyists, which means that the fondness they felt towards firearms developed a desire to repair or craft guns on their own.
Regardless of the preference and the knowledge base, gunsmiths are always keeping track with new developments, new models, accessories and manufacturers. Many of them attend conferences, events and trade shows to meet other gunsmiths, learn more and teach others more by sharing their experiences.
Understanding the Importance of Gun Safety
Every gunsmith knows that guns are no toys and that they should be handled with respect, responsibility and according to standard safety rules and laws. All successful gunsmiths are committed to gun safety.
A gunsmith is responsible for more than just creating an impressive gun for a showcase. A gunsmith carries responsibility for creating a gun that is not faulty and dangerous for the user. It is important to always follow safety guidelines, laws and regulations to protect your customers.
Education and Training
Of course, the earlier you start, the more skills you'll develop over time. The best would be to start in high school by taking courses, such as machining, woodworking and drafting, as these will help you obtain basic skills needed for the trade. However, in case your high-school days are long over, and you failed to obtain such a skill set, don't worry as it's never too late to learn.
By enrolling in a gunsmithing school or by starting an apprenticeship, you take the next step towards transforming your firearm hobby into a rewarding career that involves learning about altering triggers and safeties, diagnosing accuracy problems and preforming important self-check procedures.
Here are different ways that can bring you closer to achieving your goal of becoming a professional gunsmith.
A good idea would be to start an apprenticeship to build basic craftsmanship and knowledge. So, how to become a gunsmith apprentice? Gaining hands-on experience by learning directly from an expert is a one way to go, so make sure you seek out a local, experienced gunsmith.
You can also apply for an apprenticeship status through The Association of Gunsmiths and Related Trades. TAOGRT tends to match experienced sponsors with students looking for getting gunsmith apprenticeship.
A great thing is that the apprentices are paid for their work. Quite often they start working for a minimum wage that increases over time and with experience.
To become an apprentice, you must be 16 or older, and you'll need to be able to legally own and possess a firearm in compliance to federal and state laws. If in high school, you'll also need to graduate and maintain at least a "C" average, combined with a permission from your legal guardians and school officials.
As an apprentice you'll learn how to safely use gunsmithing tools, such milling machines and lathes, you'll learn how to make fixtures, make and fit gunstocks, perform barrel work and action work, and learn all there is to firearms theory. Sometimes apprentices are required to purchase their own tools to use over the course of their training.
To help ensure proficiency, TAOGRT has developed certain standards like competency exams. There are specified numbers of hours that an apprentice must spend gaining experience in order to complete the gunsmith apprenticeship. Also, the apprenticeship will last a minimum of four years for a standard gunsmith training.
An apprentice can earn the certificate based on the fulfilment of the hourly requirements and the specialty. Possible certifications would be as follows:
- Firearm Repair Specialist
- Firearms Restorer
- Stock Maker
- Barrel Maker
- Firearm Engraver
- Journeyman Gunsmith
- Journeyman Rifle Smith
- Journeyman Pistol Smith
- Journeyman Shotgun Smith
- Journeyman Classic Firearms Smith
- Master Gunsmith
Colleges & Technical Schools
After you complete your apprenticeship, you can take your knowledge to the next level by rolling into a technical college or university that offers gunsmithing programs and proper credentials. Most of these programs last between 6 months and 2 years, and a background check is necessary for all students that apply.
The educational gunsmithing programs require students to spend time gaining hands-on experience in machine shops, they usually have the opportunity to get acquainted and work on different types of guns during their education, and some colleges offer their students an extra year of training in the form of working in or managing a gunsmith shop. You'll learn everything from mechanical and tooling skills, to diagnosing and repairing guns, safety procedures, and even chemistry and ballistics.
Some of the very best colleges and schools include Trinidad State Junior Colledge in Trinidad (CO), Yavapai Colledge in Prescott (AZ), Pennsylvania Gunsmith School in Pittsburgh (PA), but we'll write about best gunsmith schools in detail in our next chapter.
Online Gunsmithing Schools
Of course, there are a lot of students that are unable to attend gunsmithing classes on-site, so luckily, there are many online or distance-learning courses that are offered by many different schools and colleges.
Another benefit of online courses besides not being obligated to physically visit the college or school (which saves you time and money) is the possibility finish the courses at your own pace, which also means much faster than you would by attending traditional, on-site courses.
The online courses usually consist of several learning modules. The students are required to complete the assigned readings, practical exercises and online examinations in order to complete the course. The schools use various e-documents, such as PDFs, video presentations and demonstrations to convey technical concepts to the students. Some colleges offer textbooks, some video lectures and textbooks.
According to online reviews we picked top 5 best online gunsmithing schools to give you a place to start when researching the best school for you.
1. Penn Foster Career School, Scranton (PA)
The Penn Foster Career School offers you to build or refine your gunsmithing skills through affordable online gunsmith classes in as little as 3 months. The program includes over 50 short how-to and instructional videos which are an addition to your reading materials.
The program goal is to provide students with a working knowledge of basic gun repairs and modifications, so that they could gain an entry-level career in gunsmithing. The courses are about getting started in the firearms industry, identifying, evaluating and the history of different firearms, such as rifles, guns, shotguns, muzzleloaders and handguns, and metal- and finishing work.
The entire gunsmithing program costs $699 if paid in full (monthly auto pay option costs $779 and monthly mail payment option costs $884). The tuition includes: Snap-on tools discount, National Electrical Code handbook, mobile-friendly coursework, dedicated success coach, textbooks and study materials, unlimited student support, goal setting-progress tracking tools and career services.
Learn more about the Penn Foster Career School Online Gunsmith Training Program here.
2. Ashworth College, Norcross (GA)
The Ashworth College Online Gunsmithing School will help you gain hands-on techniques for troubleshooting, repairing and reassembling a variety of firearms, and provide instructions on basic shop setup and effective business practices. All students get personalized career assistance that includes creating an impactful resume, preparing for interviews and exploring relevant job opportunities.
You'll be able to complete the entire program in as little as 4 months, and maximum in one year from the day of the enrollment. The program includes comprehensive textbook and study guides, including three textbooks on pistols, rifles and shotguns, and an exclusive access to a full-range of career tools. The students will gain basic understanding of the materials, tools and processes used for maintaining, restoring, modifying and upgrading common pistols, rifles and shotguns, learn to identify various brands and styles of commercially available firearms, learn how to identify various hand and power tools, and much more.
The price of the program in case of a full payment is $699, and for monthly pay $899 or $49 a month, which makes both options quite affordable.
3. Sonoran Desert Institute, Scottsdale (AZ)
There are two online gunsmithing programs at Sonoran Desert Institute – The Associate of Science in Firearms Technology and Advanced Gunsmithing Certificate.
The Associate program is a 60-semester-hour program, broken into four, 16-week semesters with expected completion time of 2 years. It is said to be the most comprehensive Schools of Firearms Technology program in the country. All subjects are grouped into 3 sections: Firearms Technology Discipline, General Business and General Education. The students will work with student service staff to select their personal semester schedules.
The Advanced Gunsmithing Certificate program a 32-semester-hour program, broken into two, 16-week semesters with expected completion time of 8 months. The students will gain knowledge in Firearms Technology Discipline which includes everything from basic ballistics and introduction to firearms to finishes and engraving to machining and manufacturing and shooting sports management.
The total cost of the Associate of Science in Firearm Technology amounts to $16,980 (tuition $15,000 and educational resource fee $1,980), and the total Advanced Gunsmithing Certificate program costs $8,990 ($8,000 for tuition, $990 educational resource fee).
There are also firearm technology individual/optional courses that are expected to be completed in 8 weeks and the price is $250 per credit hour plus $125 educational resource fee.
4. American Gunsmithing Institute, Napa (CA)
The Americal Gunsmithing Institute offers different courses for both hobbyists and career gunsmiths. The gunsmithing certification can be achieved in as little as 3 months. The students can choose their own curriculum – they can choose to go through the entire program or complete specific programs. All instructional videos are presented by experienced gunsmiths with well-established reputations.
The Certified Professional Gunsmithing Course has 4 options:
- Pro-Level 1 ($4,997) - 108 hours of design, function and repair instruction + bonuses;
- Pro-Level 2 (6,997) - Level 1 + complete machine shop course with materials + much more;
- Master Gunsmith ($9,997) - Level 1 + Level 2 + welding, certified 1911 pistol smith + Glock smith + how to build a semi-auto G-3, HK-91 & CETME Rifle + much more;
- Enhanced Master Gunsmithing Course ($14,997) - All previous levels + personalized gunsmithing website + much more.
5. Modern Gun Repair, Wilmington (DE)
The Modern Gun School offers two courses: Basic Gun Repair Course & Advanced Gun Repair Course.
The Basic Gun Repair Courseconsists of 31 lessons, 4 hands-on bench projects, $250+ worth of supplier and two specialty AR15 lessons. It represents an introduction to the industry, designed for anyone with an interest in gun repair, maintenance and design. The full payment price is $1,199.
The Advanced Gun Repair Course consists of 65 lessons, 7 hands-on projects, and $400+ worth of supplies. It offers a comprehensive education on the entire firearm's industry. The course price in case of a full payment is $1,499.
Federal Firearms License
You don't need a "gunsmith license" to be a gunsmith, but you do need a Federal Firearms License (FFL) if you want to become a licensed gunsmith. The FFL gives you a legal right to possess other people's firearms for an extended period.
Since you don't own a permit for other people's firearms, this license will allow you to maintain possession of another person's firearms for as long as it takes to repair, test and work on them.
The process of getting the license is very strict and involves an on-site interview with a federal field agent. First, you'll need to be over 21. Next, you'll apply for it through the US Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF).
The specific form is called "ATF 5310.12 (Form 7) Application for License" and it can be downloaded from the ATF website. The basic license that authorizes you to work with shotguns, pistols, revolvers and rifles is "Type 1".
You'll also need to submit a copy of your fingerprints and a fee along with the application. The ATF will run a criminal history background check and the federal field agent is going to inspect your gunsmithing tools and facilities, ask you questions to determine whether you are experienced enough and whether you conduct the best gun safety practices.
The gunsmiths with Federal Firearms License must also meet bookkeeping requirements that are set by the ATF. Every firearm that is left with a gunsmith overnight, must be recorded and kept in the shop's "bound book".
5 Ways How to Beat Rust on a Gun and Firearm
No matter you place a gun in the back of a wardrobe, behind a car seat or in an in-ground stash, taking the time to protect them versus the ravages of time and nature will provide it live long enough for your offspring to use.
Rust occurs on guns because they are typically metal object. Even the best arm can scratch and fade over time, and rust just shows inevitably. Carry guns are rust friendly because of proximity they have with the human body. The human body is a big rust maker because of sweat. Sweat actually ruins guns. If you live in humidity areas, guns can rust rapidly.
Most modern guns are anodized with a coating that guards against rust. Anyhow, even anodized and blued surfaces can’t stop rust forever. In this article, we’ll show some easy techniques on how to remove rust from a gun.
How to Remove Heavy Rust from a Gun with Dremel
Age or exposure of firearms to the humidity or ambient air can make rusted spots on your favorite gun. To avoid that "rusted situation" use Dremel rotary tool with CRATEX rubber bonded small abrasive wheels.
They’re made of high-quality silicon carbide and are ideal for operations such as: removing rust from old guns, removing trigger serrations, removing stretches, rounding edges, cleaning up worn or damaged pistol and rifle markings and engravings, polishing flash pan, bolts and feed ramps, smoothing surface and getting almost mirror finish, jeweling a rifle bolt or pistol barrel, etc.
CRATEX abrasives come in 4 standard grit textures which differ in color: Course (green), Medium (dark brown), Fine (reddish brown) and Extra Fine (grey-green). There is also the possibility to change standard shapes and grits and get a modified abrasive tool that meets your needs much better.
Follow these few steps on how to remove rust from a gun with a dremel.
The most important thing, make sure that firearm is unloaded. Then, insert CRATEX small abrasive wheels on a rotary tool. Apply a few drops of gun oil on a rusted place. Wait for a while.
Start running with Dremel against an oiled rusted surface. Use napkins or paper towel to wipe the rusted area. Continue with removing process until you get a clean and smooth surface. Use a dry clean cotton cloth and clean any rust residentials.
You finished gun rust remover process and got a brand-new firearm without rusty spots.
Removing Rust from Gun with Steel Wool
When you're cleaning a gun, the abrasive material has a crucial impact. Applying wrong abrasive material can ruin the finish of the firearm. Using a steel wool pad is an effective method to remove rust from a gun. It’s smooth and easy to use.
Lubrication plays an essential role in rust removal also. Any kind of oil can be applied for this project. There are plenty of oils that are specially made for firearms. You can use cooking oil and ‘3 in 1’ oil. Napkins or some used newspapers are the things that you need too.
Follow the lines below on how to remove heavy rust from a gun.
Double-check if the gun is loaded or not. If it’s loaded, then unload it to ensure your safety.
Try to keep the work area steady and quiet to keep your focus. Use the napkins or newspapers for collecting the wastes and for other cleaning needs.
Put the gun calmly so that it doesn’t move while cleaning. Always keep the gun pointed in a direction that is safe because there is a possibility of getting misfired if the gun is loaded.
Pour oil on and around the rusted surface. Avoid using large amounts of oil. Apply a few drops.
Use the steel wool pad as an abrasive material to rub the gun surface. Don’t use much pressure so the finish of the gun would be ruined.
The finish of the firearm might be damaged if done improperly. Then you add gun cleaner on steel wool and rub it lightly on the rusted area. After some time wipe the gun with the napkins or and check it thoroughly.
If the rust stays, rerun the process again, until the gun becomes rust free.
Cleaning Rust of Gun with Oil
Make sure that before beginning rust removal process, you feel the texture of the gun so that later on you can see the difference after you're done the job. This is the most effortless technique of all, just read the instructions below.
Always, double-check that the gun is unloaded to avoid injuring yourself or others.
First, apply the firearm oil on the rusted surface, don’t add a lot of oil.
Let the oil to sit for a while to loosen the rust grip on the surface, and this will boost the contact of oil and rust. That cause loosens the grip of rust on the gun.
Apply a cotton cloth to wipe its surface. Skip using large amounts of oil as much as possible.
If the rust remains, keep cleaning the surface until the gun becomes rust free. This depends on the depth of rust on the arm.
Use soft steel wool or copper brush to rub the surface. Ensure that your index finger can move through a circular manner as you guide the steel wool on the rust areas. Repeat the operation until you have a sheen surface. If you are done a good work, you will see the clean oil changing color from being clear to a rusty color.
Remove the surface sediments that may be there during the rust removal. At the end of the process just clean the gun with a cotton cloth, and that's all.
Battery Changer as Gun Rust Remover
This is an excellent solution of removing rust, it's mostly recommended for copper, brass, aluminum and alloy sort of firearms. For this method, you need a plastic container, steel rod, baking soda, and battery charger. Be extremely careful while doing this task and inspect is your gun loaded.
Mix 1 tablespoon of baking soda with a gallon of water and you make electrolyte. Then put steel rood cautiously in a container, the rode will be anode (positive terminal), and the cathode will be the solution.
Connect the cathode to the rusted surface and anode to the rod, make sure that charger is plugged in. Bubbles in water show that the process is going on. Let it sit there for three to five hours. After that, just remove the gun parts and wipe it with a cotton cloth. This is one of the best ways how to clean a gun with household items.
How to Get Rust Off a Gun With WD-40
It’s an option recommended by many gun industry owners because of its moisture displacement and rust preventing properties. Before applying the WD-40 solution be sure that arm isn’t loaded.
This technique is quite simple. First, you need to put the arm on the flat surface. Then, spray the WD-40 solution on the rust area. Let the solution stay on rust surface for 24 hours and then respray it. Wipe the surface with a rag or a napkin, and you got a brand-new gun again.
Preventive Measures Against Rust
The quickest method to prevent rust from returning is to wipe down all gun surfaces with a dry cloth. The moisture accumulation, especially salt water speeds up the steel oxidation and iron surfaces.
The drier the gun, the less possibility there is for rust to show. If you put unused firearms in a safe with a desiccant, the desiccant can eliminate surplus water from the air.
So, the key to preventing rust is to keep it as dry as possible. Regular maintenance and cleaning, once or twice a month should be sufficient for most arms.
Best Storage Conditions
To be the most efficient at preventing rust, you must store a gun in a cool, dry place. If you want to be very precise, the NRA National Firearms Museum keeps their collection stored at a constant 70°, and 50 to 55% humidity.
For most folks, this stage of precision is not easily reachable, so just try to store it in the driest place you can and that way, you prevent rust appearance on the firearm for some period. Avoid places like attics, garages, and the trunk of a truck. It is also an excellent option to skip leaving guns in their cases, as these can often be a trap for moisture and cause rust.
Still, you can pack all the dehumidifiers in your gun, but it won’t prevent a firearm from corroding if you forget to clean them after using. If you really want your gun stays rust free, you will need to provide they are clean, properly oiled, and stored in a dry, cool place. If you can achieve all of these things, it should be the crux that your guns stay in best condition for an extended period.
Gun Bluing - Blue it, Don’t Ruin it
If you’re into a gun’s thing, you might have heard the term bluing before. Different forms of bluing have been used by gunsmiths and gun enthusiasts for centuries now to protect guns from wear and damage, but you might still be wondering what gun bluing is.
Bluing or black oxidizing is a process of treating steel to create a thin protective shell around it. It works by turning rust, into black iron oxide. The blue-black image of black iron oxide is what gives the name to this process. It can be performed on gun barrels and other firearm components. There are several methods to blue gun barrels, such as hot bluing, cold bluing, rust bluing, niter bluing, charcoal bluing, and heat bluing.
Gun refinishing is one of the most gratifying phases of the gunsmithing work. Few gunsmithing operations are as rewarding as seeing a rusted and badly abused gun transformed into a beautiful, ornate, blue-black finished arm. It turns a worn weapon into one that looks brand new.
Before, the arrival of the modern solutions for bluing guns, giving a gun that unique, blue-black look was a long process that demands many hours of intensive, hands-on work.
Hot gun bluing is the most common bluing technique offered by most firearm manufacturers. It’s a very durable finish applied on a variety of steels. The main benefit of the hot bluing method is gun protection from corrosion. This method extends the life of a gun and restores it.
Follow the next 6 steps in order to perform hot gunmetal blue process like true gunsmith.
Step #1 Disassembling and Polishing
Use steel wool to remove any scarring, loose rust, or pitting from the arm metal. Take the gun all the way apart. Anything you don't apart will get salt molten in it, and it may be substantially more challenging to disassemble after bluing steel. You also need to remove all the springs you don't want to blue. Swab the parts, they don't have to be spotless but get the big stuff off.
The adequate chemicals for the bluing method are caustic chemicals. Always wear rubber gloves while working with these chemicals.
Step #2 Soaking and Rinsing
Parts should be dipped in the bath for 15 minutes and scrubbed while being immersed to remove any dirt, oil, or grease that could get in the way of the bluing process. You can use any of chemical cleaners such as sodium triphosphate, naphtha, denatured alcohol, and acetone. Rinse the cleaning solution in a few minutes.
Step #3 Immersing of the Gun Parts in the Bluing Solution
The bluing solution applied in hot bluing is a caustic salt mixture of potassium nitrate and sodium hydroxide recognized as “traditional caustic black.” The caustic salt mixture must be warmed in a metal basket to a temperature from 275 to 310 degrees F, relying on the composition of the traditional caustic black.
Allow the gun parts to stay in the bluing solution from 15 to 30 minutes. Double-check when the metal has reached the desired color tone of bluing and remove it from the solution at that time.
Step #4 Cold Water Rinsing
Rotate the parts through the cold water to wash off the bluing salts. Leave to air dry for 3 minutes.
Step #5 Boiling
After cold water rinsing, put the gun parts in boiling water. It’ll boil any remaining bluing solution leftover. Simple parts need to be soaked for 15 to 20 minutes, while complex or decorated parts should be soaked for about 45 minutes.
Step #6 Final Process
Soak the treated gun parts in a bath. It’ll protect the finish from sweat, body oil, and of course rust. Let the parts in the oil bath for an hour, until they have cooled, and you finished gun bluing task successfully.
Cold bluing is a method which doesn’t require heat. Cold bluing isn't especially resistant to holster wear, neither it provides a high degree of rust resistance. Generally, it gives an adequate cosmetic retouch of a gun's finish when applied and additionally oiled on a regular basis. However, rust bluing of small areas will often “hit better the bluing target” than any other cold bluing process. Read the following steps and learn how to cold blue a gun.
Step #1 Cleaning and Polishing
Polish the metal with the sandpaper as you would with either of the other bluing processes, but how you want to clean the arm depends on whether you need to blue the entire gun or touch up existing bluing.
Step #2 Use the Bluing Solution
Gently spread the solution to the part to be blued as evenly as possible, applying a clean applicator. Use the solution in a single pass to cover small surfaces, or in parts no larger than 4 to 5 inches when covering large areas, then smooth it out using sandpaper. It’ll prevent the bluing from looking “messy.”
Repeat the applying of the solution several more times until you got the wanted bluing result.
Step #3 Fine Adjustment
“Spice up” the finish with gun oil once you achieve the desired bluing level. Spread a layer of gun oil a few more time, applying a cotton ball to remove the previous layer before spreading a new layer.
Don’t apply the cleaning oil in this stage, as it’ll take off the bluing.
Rust bluing is a great blue-black finish that was used by firearms companies before 1940 when hot bluing was invented. Hot bluing isn’t much better, but it’s much less labor intensive.
Rust bluing is very popular nowadays for custom hobbyists and gunsmiths on account of the quality and durability of finish that can be achieved without too much equipment. Rust bluing is a method of making steel rust in a controlled environment.
The niter bluing has also known as a fire bluing process that creates vibrant colors, but they’re not always durable. It works best on pins and screws because they’re subject to wear and movement. Niter bluing can produce all shades between straw and dark blue.
The process involves soaking of the gun part into a hot liquid potassium nitrate, which produces a uniformly colored finish. Like all other bluing methods, the most crucial step is metal preparation.
The metal surfaces are block sanded to remove all imperfections and then polished to a mirror shine just before the bluing process, which avoids oxidation of the steel. Even though fire bluing makes a shiny finish, it’s not as durable as hot bluing, since it creates a patina color with wear.
It is one of the traditional bluing methods used on many fine firearms. The process involves packing the steel in charcoal and "baking" it at approximately 800° for few hours.
This process is established by S&W sometime after WWI. Smith Wesson hired the American Gas Furnace Company to develop a bluing oil that included special whale oil. The guns were put in a rotating drum loaded with wheal oil and charcoal, and the drums were warmed in the oven while the oil/charcoal mix rotated around the parts inside the drum.
“Catching” the right texture and shade of original charcoal bluing finish depends mostly on the underlying metal polish. The final result is a shiny blue-black finish that is very durable. A charcoal blued high polished part will produce a mirror-like finish that is second to none.
The bluing process is often accelerated and intensified with the utility of heat. All items become more elastic and smooth to change when they are heated.
Heat bluing or flame bluing method is practically the heat treating that imparts color based on the temperature, and the ingredients present during the heating. By heating gun parts, you can achieve colors from straw to black and deep blue. If you "remove the heat from the gun parts at the right time," you can get a subtle blue color, just like niter bluing.
How to re-blue a Gun?
In the next 5 steps, you’ll figure out how to re-blue a gun.
Step #1 Polishing
Use steel wool to remove any pitting, loose rust, or scarring from the gun.
Step #2 Cleaning
Clean away any oil, grease, or dirt that remains chemically. You can use sodium, naphtha, triphosphate, denatured alcohol, and acetone. Then rinse the cleaning solution.
Step #3 Coating
Coat the gun parts with a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acid in the metal container. The acid solution forces the metal to rust, but to do so evenly.
Step #4 Boiling
Soak the gun parts in boiling water. It stops the rusting by removing the acid solution.
Step #5 Scrubbing
Scrub off the red oxide rust that has formed, leaving the black oxide finish underneath. Remove the rusted section with a ball of steel wool.
Rerun the acid procedure, boiling, and scrubbing until you get the desired level of bluing.
Step #6 Apply Oil
Apply the oil on gun treated gun parts. The oil prevents the formation of rust and protects the metal finish from sweat, body oil, wear, and dirt. Once you’ve spread the oil, leave the parts to stand overnight before assembling.